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Nanobots

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Nanobots (Nanotechnology Robots)Basic nanomachines are already in use. Nanobots will be the next generation of nanomachines. Advanced nanobots will be able to sense and adapt to environmental stimuli such as heat, light, sounds, surface textures, and chemicals; perform complex calculations; move, communicate, and work together; conduct molecular assembly; and, to some extent, repair or even replicate themselves. For materials and products in many fields, including electronics and medicine, being smaller is often better. Smaller electronic circuits can perform more computations with lower power requirements. Smaller medical devices can interact with cells in the human body at a molecular level for more precise diagnosis and targeted treatment of disease. For these reasons, there is growing interest in the field of nanotechnology -- technology that deals with things that are very, very small. A nanometer is only one billionth of a meter, a length into which one can only fit around 10 atoms. Nanotechnology is the science and application of creating objects on a level smaller than 100 nanometers. The extreme concept of nanotechnology is the "bottom up" creation of virtually any material or object by assembling one atom at a time. Although nanotech processes occur at the scale of nanometers, the materials and objects that result from these processes can be much larger. Large-scale results happen when nanotechnology involves massive parallelism in which many simultaneous and synergistic nanoscale processes combine to produce a large-scale result. Nanotechnology materials and objects are not just scaled-down versions of their larger counterparts. Nanotechnology creates materials and objects with characteristics that are qualitatively different than conventionally fabricated products. Nanotech products can have greater strength, less weight, greater conductivity, greater heat resistance, and other beneficial attributes relative to traditional products. For example, nano-engineered material can be several times stronger than steel at a fraction of steel's weight. The field of nanotechnology involves the convergence of several basic sciences and applied disciplines. It engages the physical sciences of physics, chemistry, materials science and engineering. It also engages life sciences such as biology, genetics, biotechnology, medicine (including several specialties such as oncology, radiology, and orthopedics) and pharmacology. Further, it extends into electronics, computer science, information technology and communications. The vision of creating an endless variety of objects one atom at a time is so remarkable that it would be easy to dismiss nanotechnology as science fiction. This has been reinforced by images on television and in the movies of swarms of self-replicating âââ¬Ãânanobots.âââ¬Ã These visions are far from reality. However, simple and useful nanotechnology applications are already in use.Nanotechnology coatings are already being used to make clothing with stain-resistant fibers. Nanotech powders are already being used to formulate high-performance sun-screen lotions. Nanoparticles are already helping to deliver drugs to targeted tissues within the body. Additional applications are underway in the areas of: medical diagnosis and treatments; biotechnology; advanced development of pharmaceuticals; cosmetics; aerospace and automotive industries; security, defense, and environmental protection; electronics, computers and communication; energy production, storage, and lighting; and manufacturing and product design. Before further discussion of nanotechnology applications, here's an overview of the basic geometry of various nanostructures. Nanocomposites blend materials such as polymers and ceramics in a blended mixture of nanoscale proportions. Nanospheres and nanocircles are circular structures, between 1-100 nanometers in size, that are used to -- absorb, transport, and diffuse matter; absorb and reflect specific wavelengths of light or other energy; and act as miniature ball bearings for low-friction coatings. Nanocrystals are the general term for complex, polygonal nanostructures that are grown rather than assembled atom by atom. Nanocrystals can have high strength and low weight compared to conventional materials. Nanocrystals can also have unique electromechanical properties and produce light from electricity with greater efficiency than incandescent lights. Nanotubes, one category of nanocrystals, are composed of one or more concentric, hollow, cylindrical carbon molecules with hexagonal, octagonal, or circular caps. Quantum dots are a type of nanocrystal with discrete energy states at the atomic level. Quantum dots can emit a much narrower band of wavelengths than they absorb. Nanotechnology has moved from abstraction to reality with the development of tools such as the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM), and the Virtual Surface Profiling Microscope (VSPM). These microscopes do more than just let people see small things. They also enable manipulation of matter on a scale of nanometers in a vacuum, liquid or gas. The AFM has a probe that creates three-dimensional images of individual atoms and molecules at the nanoscale level as it moves across an objectâââ‰â¢s surface. STMs can etch surfaces and move particles on scale of nanometers. Even more advanced tools for nanoscale growth and nanoparticle assembly are under development.Nanomanufacturing is the creation of materials and products through: (1) Direct Molecular Assembly (DMA) -- discrete, directed assembly of individual atoms and molecules into macroscale materials and products; (2) Indirect Crystalline Assembly (ICA) -- creation of conditions that foster the growth of nanoscale crystals that are then combined into macroscale materials and products; or (3) Massive Parallelism Assembly (MPA) -- the creation of many nanomachines or nanobots whose operating parameters cause them to work synergistically to assemble atoms and molecules into macroscale materials and products. Additional nanogloss. A nanomachine is an extremely small human-made electromechanical device that is manufactured on the atomic or molecular level to perform specific functions. Nanoscale mechanical gears, joints and layered polymers create tiny arms and legs by which nanomachines can move and perform tasks. Nanosensors and information processors enable them to sense and respond to heat, light, chemicals, surfaces, sounds and other environmental stimuli. Nanobots are an advanced form of nanomachines that can adapt to their environment, work synergistically toward a common goal, and even replicate. Currently, replication is an optional attribute that is characteristic of only the most advanced nanobots and not part of the base definition for nanobots. Nanomachines are being produced, but true nanobots remain in the realm of science fiction. What differentiates machines from living things? Nanotechnology is moving toward the creation of microscopic machines that can interact with biological cells on a molecular level, adapt to their environment, and even reproduce. Will these machines be alive despite their mechanical origin? DNA is now being used as part of biological computers. Is DNA used in this manner part of a machine despite its biological origin? The borders between nanotechnology and biotechnology are blurring. Hybrid machine/organisms give rise to more questions than answers. Additional Holographic Television. Future developments at the intersection of materials science and nanotechnology will probably lead to the creation of intelligent materials that sense and respond to their environment. These "smart materials" will respond to temperature, pressure, light, electricity, or other stimuli. Nanotechnology may create smart materials (and objects made with such materials) equipped with nanosensors and versatile internal structures that change shape and function with varying conditions and commands. For more Virtual Reality. Nanotechnology has the potential to completely revolutionize the electronics industry. Nanomachines may some day create computer circuits from the âââ¬Ãâbottom upâââ¬Ã -- one atom at a time. This would allow the manufacturing of nanochips on a much smaller scale than chips created with current âââ¬Ãâtop downâââ¬Ã etching techniques. Nanocrystalline processes can also be used to grow electronics components. For example: (1) carbon nanotubes grown in targeted micro-environments can have super-conductive properties; and (2) nanowires as small as strings of atoms can be grown like crystals and then assembled into circuits. Circuits created atom-by-atom or grown using nanocrystalline techniques will be much smaller, lighter, efficient, cooler, stronger, and faster than circuits made with conventional manufacturing processes. Nanotechnology has numerous energy-related applications. Nanophotonics is the application of nanotechnology to the transformation of electricity to light or light to electricity. In this area, nanocrystals or nanophosphores can make this transformation with greater efficiency than traditional incandescent lighting or solar panels. Using nanoceramic material as the covering for batteries absorbs electromagnetic waves and prolongs battery life. Nanopolymers provide high-performance insulation for energy transmission lines and decrease energy loss across long distances. Also interesting, Carbon Nanomaterials Business. In the telecommunications industry, nanotechnology will play an important role in the coming years particularly with respect to fiber optics. Nanocrystalline materials can be made with finer resolution than standard fibers for enhanced optic cables, switches, lenses and junctions. In telecommunications more generally, the fields of nanotechnology and holotechnology will overlap in the design of the projection screens and user interfaces of the next generations of holographic cell phones, âââ¬ÃâHolographones,âââ¬Ã and televisions, âââ¬ÃâHoloTVs.âââ¬Ã There are many potential applications for nanotechnology in the fields of security, defense and environmental safety. Nanomachines with sensors and molecular modifiers can detect and neutralize chemical toxins and biological hazards. Nanomembranes can filter and remove toxins from the air and water. Hazardous materials can be deconstructed into harmless components by carefully-controlled nanobots. Nanosensors can be used for security and surveillance systems, but this should be accompanied by legal safeguards to avoid abuses. Nanotechnology is already being used for several sports and recreation related applications. For example, nanotech tennis rackets and golf clubs are lighter, stronger, and can be engineered to provide more motion control. Nanotech coatings on swim suits repel water, reduce friction with the water, and allow swimmers to go faster. Additional Nanographite Materials. Nanomedicine is the use of nanotechnology for -- the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of illness and injury; and the enhancement of human health and functioning. Early nanomedicine applications include: discovery of new pharmaceutical agents; targeted pharmaceutical delivery systems; âââ¬Ãâlaboratories on a chipâââ¬Ã that perform multiple medical tests invitro or invivo; medical imaging using nanotechnology device coatings and nanoparticles that attach to certain types of cells; enhanced surgical tools and medibotics, both external and internal; and nanotechnology implants and tissue scaffolds. Also interesting, Nanofilm. Nanopharmacology is the application of nanotechnology to the discovery of new molecular entities with pharmacological properties. Nanotechnology is also useful for individualized matching of pharmaceuticals to particular people to maximize effectiveness and minimize side effects. It is also used for delivery of pharmaceuticals to targeted locations or specific types of tissue in the body. One of the most promising early applications of nanotechnology to the practice of medicine is targeted drug delivery using nanocapsules. For many pharmaceutical uses, cancer treatment for example, it is a challenge to get effective amounts of a drug to a particular tissue within the body while keeping systemic effects low. Drug-filled nanocapsules can be covered with antibodies or cell-surface receptors that bind to cancer or other cells and release their pharmaceutical payload upon contact with those cells. Nanocapsules also provide one of the few ways to get drugs across the blood-brain barrier for treatment of diseases affecting the eyes, brain, and other portions of the central nervous system. They act like a Trojan Horse that the barrier lets through. Other Nanoprobes. Invivo âââ¬Ãâlabs on a chipâââ¬Ã employ nanotech biosensors and microfluidics to continuously monitor body temperature, pulse, heart rhythm, blood pressure and flow, oxygenation, or glucose level; perform multiple DNA tests; detect pathogens or toxins; or diagnose cancerous tumors while they are very small. External chips can perform some of these functions, but generally not on a continuous basis, especially for those requiring access to tissue within the body. Other Holographic Technology. Nanotechnology is also being developed to enhance medical imaging. For example, nanotech particles that display certain colors under an MRI scan can be coated with antibodies that link to cancer cells and thereby reveal their precise locations under MRI. Nanotech particles may also be designed to detect and display toxins, viruses, or other pathological matter within the body. Other Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. There are promising applications of nanotechnology in the field of orthopedics. Grafts of natural bone can carry disease or trigger immune rejection by the host. If one sterilizes the bone to reduce the chances of disease, then this can weaken the bone. Artificial bone cement without nanotechnology can work for small applications, but tends to not have sufficient strength for load-bearing bone replacement. However, artificial bone paste made with nanoceramic particles shows considerable promise for bone repair and replacement, even in load-bearing applications. And Nanotechnology in Manufacturing. Nanotechnology can also be used to partially repair neurological damage. For example, it can improve the accuracy of cochlear implants that turn sound into electrical impulses and create light-activated implants in the retina to partially restore lost vision. Also, biomemetic scaffolds can help damaged nerves to regrow and reconnect. For more: Virtual Reality. Nanotechnology may one day be able to create nanomedibots that function like artificial white-blood cells âââ‰â¬Å repairing tissue at a molecular level. We have already said that nanocapsules may transport and release pharmaceuticals. They can also contain living cells that release therapeutic agents, protecting the cells from rejection or destruction by the host by camouflaging them from the hostâââ‰â¢s immune system. Some day there may even be nanotech blood vessels for implantation in people with cardiovascular disease. In addition to delivering pharmaceuticals as discussed above, nanotech medical robots ("nanomedibots") may be able to: monitor body function; repair damaged tissue at the molecular level; deconstruct pathologic or abnormal material or cells such as cancer or plaque; and enhance human health and functioning. Although nanomedibots have not been developed, there are ongoing advances in nanofluidics and carbon nanotube flow sensors that may become their building blocks. As nanotechnology and biotechnology advance, nanomedibots and engineered beneficial microorganisms may be integrated.What are your views on Nanotechnology Robots?

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eeeeeeeeeeeeeek my eyes.... i cannot be arsed to read al that at the mo hun (lol) but when i do i'll give ya my opinion x biggrin.gif

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Ok, cool! I know it seems a lot to read, but if you actually read you'll find it's very interesting and intelligent. Anyone else have any views?

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I am of the opinion that im not as intelligent as i thought i was! God, i struggled a bit with that. Its definately amazing when you think about it though, and whats possible if its developed further.

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well i read it all chase, and it renewed my interest in my degree subject! now if you'll excuse me, im off to read the new scientist biggrin.gif

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